Week 2: Personas

Blog Post Week 2

This week I’ve been researching my chosen topic and trying to narrow down my target market.

My topic is Endometriosis awareness. I’ve narrowed this down following last week to awareness of the condition in adolescent girls (15-20).

The problem seems to be normalisation of symptoms, not realising there is any problem, a lack of knowledge and/or understanding by parents, friends, etc. and lack of knowledge and proper treatment practices by medical professionals.

I think that the potential to improve awareness could be approached in a few different ways. First and foremost is raising awareness in teens themselves; the second is to provide knowledge and resources to parents of teenage girls so they know what to look for; the third is to increase awareness and provide best practice recommendations to medical professionals, specifically GPs.

I think looking at teens and their parents as a target market is probably my best option at this stage, and this would probably involve a campaign which is both in schools and online, as well as other key areas which both teens and their parents are likely to be/access.

I’ve also used the ABS website to find some statistics which relate to this market. In particular, looking at health in females and young people, both physical symptoms and associated anxiety disorders. I’ve also begun looking at potential platforms for the campaign which will reach teen girls, so I’ve researched home internet use – essentially how teens use social media and on what device.

Below are some key points I’ve found which are relevant to my topic:

  • In Australia, 67% of people aged 15 years and over reported experiencing bodily pain in the past four weeks.
  • More Australian adults experienced chronic pain in 2007-08 than in 1995

(Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011)

  • 19% of females 15 years and over reported anxiety related problems
  • 7% of females were sedentary or engaged in low levels of exercise

(Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016)

  • Most households with access to the internet did so through a desktop or laptop computer (94%), followed by households who accessed via mobile or smart phones (86%) and households who accessed via tablets (62%).
  • Those people in the 15-17 years age group had the highest proportion of internet users (99%)
  • Those aged 15-17 years spent the highest mean number of hours per week on the internet (18 hours per week)
  • Those aged 15-17 years old most commonly went online for social networking (91%), followed by entertainment and formal education activities (73% for both)

(Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2015)

  • One in ten people aged 15 years and over in 2007-08 reported feeling severe (8%) or very severe (2%) pain in the four weeks prior to being surveyed.
  • One in five reported moderate pain (19%) and 39% had mild or very mild bodily pain.
  • Rates of experiencing moderate – very severe pain increased steadily with age, from 18% of people aged 15-24 years.
  • Women were more likely than men to experience anxiety disorders (18%)
  • Adolescence and young adulthood is a critical stage of transition in physical and mental development, and vulnerability to mental illness is heighted at this time.
  • Around three-quarters (76%) of people who experience mental disorder during their lifetime will first develop a disorder before the age of 25 years.

(Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012)

This data is interesting, and I think it is relevant to the overall experience of Endometriosis sufferers as a proportion (10%) of the Australian population. In terms of experiencing pain, the data suggests that chronic pain levels are increasing over time. Also of note is that 18% of people aged 15-24 years experienced moderate-very severe pain. When this is coupled with the already known vulnerability of young people to mental illness (see above), and the fact that 76% of people with mental disorders during their lifetime are developing them before the age of 25, Endometriosis, which can cause both pain, and mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression, is a serious concern for teenage girls today. Also of note is the lack of young girls exercising enough, as this is an important method for coping with Endometriosis symptoms. This could potentially be a point of note for the campaign. Finally, looking at how teenagers connect with the world and each other, almost every teenager is using the internet 99%, and are using it on average around 18 hours a week. They also use the internet predominantly for social media (91%), as well as entertainment and school (73%). This makes social media in particular a very strong platform for the campaign as it has the greatest reach of any other medium for connecting with teenagers. This will help me shape the direction that I want the campaign to go, and will continue to refine it as I go.

I’ve also been working on creating the first persona, which will be developed and refined over time, and will also be accompanied by others as I research the topic more. I’ve created a few moodboard images of the people I feel represent my main personas, being teenage girls and their mothers, which you can see below:

Persona Images

This first persona document is for my main target market, being that of teenage girls, and looks in particular at girls who might not know that there is an issue with what they experience.

Persona 1

I used research based on teen’s experience with Endometriosis to inform this, as well as the statistics above from the ABS to ensure that I created a persona that was true to the market that I am targeting.

Research that I’ve found in relation to this is below:

  • Women with endometriosis often report onset of symptoms during adolescence
  • Diagnosis is often delayed
  • Most common complaints were dysmenorrhea (64%), abnormal/irregular uterine bleeding (60%), gastrointestinal symptoms (56%)
  • Median number of physicians who evaluated their pain was 3
  • May describe acyclic pain as well as cyclic pain
  • Social and emotional costs to girls caused by absenteeism at school and inability to participate in normal activities
  • In survey of more than 4000 women, two-thirds experienced symptoms during adolescence
  • Adolescents are overlooked, may be because they present with atypical symptoms; vague abdominal symptoms, gastrointestinal distress
  • Adolescents had average 23 month delay in diagnosis
  • 56% of patients report a positive family history
  • Can be misdiagnosed with conditions such as PID and IBS, which can have adverse psychological impacts
  • Often referred to specialists such as psychiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons before endometriosis is diagnosed.
  • Early diagnosis and removal of endometriosis may decrease long-term detrimental effects of the disease

(Source: Endometriosis in Adolescents 2015)

  • This young woman has doubts and fears when she thinks her incapacitating symptoms are the norm. She believes that everyone feels as bad as she does during her period, and so she concludes that other girls can handle things better
  • “Am I a wimp? Do I have to live like this for the rest of my life?”
  • Feelings of inadequacy are deepened by often well-meaning but uninformed people including coaches, parents and girlfriends
  • She may think “I shouldn’t take drugs, but I can’t function without them, therefore I am weak or helpless or worthless or bad”

(Source: Endometriosis in Teenagers n.d.)

  • Sometimes passed out from cramps
  • Nauseated, constipated and exhausted
  • Saw 22 doctors over years, none took her seriously
  • Was told it was “all part of being a woman”
  • There was “nothing they could do for me”
  • I knew something was wrong when I was 15, but no one listened to me
  • Affects 89 million people worldwide
  • Many young girls with endo do not find out until years later
  • Can take up to 10 years from onset of symptoms for doctor to give diagnosis
  • Largely because physicians do not believe the condition affects teenagers
  • Girls are told they are too young to have the disease
  • They’re trying to get out of school
  • They’re exaggerating
  • Misconception that pain with periods is normal
  • Often missed school days and social events because she was in agony
  • Doctors said it was normal to have a period that painful

(Source: Endometriosis is Often Ignored in Teenage Girls 2015)


This is all going to be important in determining how I approach the topic as it provides key words and experiences that may resonate with teenage girls. Using this information to create a campaign which really resonates with them is hopefully something I can do in coming weeks.



Reference List:

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Facts at Your Fingertips – Health, cat. no. 4841.0, ABS, viewed 22nd March 2017, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4841.0Chapter12011&gt;

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012, Year Book Australia – Health, 1401.0, ABS, viewed 22nd March 2017, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1301.0Main+Features2292012#&gt;

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2015, Household Use of Information Technology, 8146.0, ABS, viewed 22nd March 2017, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8146.0#&gt;

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016, Gender Indicators – Health, 4125.0, ABS, viewed 22nd March 2017, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4125.0~August%202016~Main%20 Features~Health~2321>

Albee, R, Endometriosis in Teenagers, Center for Endometriosis Care, viewed 22nd March 2017, <http://centerforendo.com/endometriosis-in-teenagers/&gt;

Dun, E, Kho, K, Morozov, V, Kearney, S, Zurawin, J, Nezhat, C 2015, ‘Endometriosis in Adolescents’, Journal of the Society of Laparascopic Surgeons, vol. 19, no. 2, viewed 22nd March 2017, <https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4432718/>

Ellin, A 2015, ‘Endometriosis is Often Ignored in Teenage Girls’, The New York Times, viewed 22nd March 2017, <https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/30/endometriosis-is-often-ignored-in-teenage-girls/?_r=1&gt;


Researching Project 2

This week I have begun working on project 2, which is a group project. We were asked to create a typographic poster featuring a quote, and each of us had different limitations placed on how many fonts, colours, and sizes we could use to create it. The quote my group was given is as follows:

‘To push the boundaries, you need to know where the edges are’

Mark Boulton

My restrictions are that I can only use one typeface, but have unlimited use of point size and colours. I’ve begun researching how I can approach this project, and I think I want something quite unique if possible. I’ve found a few great examples of different ways I could approach this:

1_Paul Rand Quote Poster_Pinterest

2_Bad Typography_Pinterest

3_Interesting Questions_Behance

4_Information is not Knowledge_Pinterest

5_New York_Behance


So a lot of different ideas here to take inspiration from! Hopefully I can find a solution that also ties into the ideas of my other group members.


References for the above images are below:

Robertson, K. n.d., ‘Paul Rand’ [image], Paul Rand in Daniel Bear Hunley’s Typography and Lettering Board, Pinterest, viewed 4th August 2016, https://au.pinterest.com/pin/67905906862084857/
‘Bad Design’ [image] n.d., Bad Design in Canva’s Poster Designs Board, Pinterest, viewed 4th August 2016, https://au.pinterest.com/pin/190066046751184311/
Crossfield, R. 2013, ‘Interesting Questions’ [image], Interesting Questions, Behance, viewed 4th August 2016, https://www.behance.net/gallery/10562075/Interesting-Questions
Hansen, W. 2016, ‘Information is not Knowledge, is not Wisdom’ [image], Information is not Knowledge, Behance, viewed, 4th August 2016, https://www.behance.net/gallery/41122627/Information-is-not-Knowledge-is-not-Wisdom
Barber, A. 2013, ‘Ogilvy New York Quote’ [image], Ogilvy New York Quote, Behance, viewed 4th August 2016, https://www.behance.net/gallery/12020637/Ogilvy-New-York-Quote
Henson, P. 2015, ‘Letterpress Project’ [image], Letterpress Project, Behance, viewed 4th August 2016, https://www.behance.net/gallery/10028085/Letterpress-Project
‘Think Outside the Box’ n.d., Think Outside the Box in Francina Pluut’s Teksten Board, Pinterest, viewed 4th August 2016, https://au.pinterest.com/pin/343681015296566832/

Figures of Exchange

This week’s learning focused on figures of exchange. I’ve found an example to illustrate each category below:


Inversion Ad

Where the scale of a product is inverted. Dyer uses the example of a little person standing next to a giant version of a product (Dyer 2008, p 143). This is the most common form of inversion, even when the little person may be normal sized, made to seem smaller next to an oversized product, as above.


Hendiadys & Homology:

Hendiadys Ad.jpgHomology Ad

(Above: Hendiadys & Homology respectively)

A complex idea connected by the word ‘and’; Hendiadys features similar form but different contents, with homology being the opposite: similar contents but different form.



Asyndeton Ad

A logical disconnection; where something is missing. Here there is a logical disconnection between the stomach and the ice cream cone.



Anacoluthon Ad - Copy

Poor or no grammatical sequence; illogical components in one image.



Chiasmus Ad

An exchange of elements, but the grammar is correct.



Antimetabole Ad

A double meaning which is incongruous or defies gravity.



Oxymoron Ad

The reverse of a paradox, where two elements remain contradictory.


Project 3 Progress:

My posters are almost finished! All but one are complete, save for the additional text. My final poster is on figures of addition, so I’m trying to figure out how to tie it in to the other three posters.

Exchange Poster

This is my figures of exchange poster, which uses oxymoron. Body text which lists facts and image references are still to go on, but I’m pretty happy with how its turned out so far!


Reference List:

BBDO (n.d.), ‘You’re Not You’ [image], Adeevee – Snickers Zebra, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/brunopdesign/ads/

Dyer, G 2008, Advertising as Communication, Taylor and Francis, Florence

‘Ice Cream Obesity’ [image] (n.d.), Ice Cream with Big Belly, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/407435097511196483/

Lays (n.d.), ‘Lays Potatoes Grown Closer than You May Think’ [image], Lays: Our Potatoes Are Grown Closer than You May Think, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/528398968752500382/

Lego Support Media (n.d.), ‘Lego Cloud’ [image], Lego Cloud Advertisement, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/272608583670885599/

McDonalds (n.d.), ‘Massive McMuffin Breakfast’ [image], McDonalds Guerilla Marketing, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/254242341440925461/

Playland (n.d.), ‘Playland: Torture’ [image], Print ad: Playland: Torture, Pinterest, viewed 1st February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/109353097177026103/

Pepsi (n.d.), ‘Scary Halloween’ [image], Scary Halloween, Pinterest, viewed 5th February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/19703317093528914/

Sony (n.d.), ‘PS2’ [image], PS2 Ad, Pinterest, viewed 5th February 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/540854236473294616/




Figures of Substitution

This week’s learning centred around figures of substitution. This can be broken down into the following categories, and I’ve found an example of each used in advertising.


Identical Substitution: An image is used to replace another; the juxtaposition provides interest.

Identical Substitution Ad

Substitution of Similar Elements: Used to compare; one element stands in for another.

Similar Elements Ad

Substitution of Different Elements: A detail or part stand in for the whole, with examples being metonymy and synecdoche respectively.

Different Elements Ad

Substitution of Opposing Elements: Paraphrasis as a roundabout way of saying something; a euphemism as an understated way of saying something and antomasia being an epithet substituted for a proper name.

Opposing Elements Ad

False Homology: Puns which are plays on words.

False Homology Ad

Project 3 Progress:

I’ve been developing ideas for my posters, and have come up with a few different concepts. The first uses animals in each poster to represent the loss of habitat resulting from anthropogenic global warming. The tagline asks viewers to interact with the scene, asking a question in each to tie all of the different images together. draft sketch 1

The second is probably my preferred option at the moment, and it involves creating animals out of different types of garbage, the idea being to discuss ways to recycle and recuse waste to reduce the impact on their habitats. Not sure what the tagline will be at the moment, but all four will use the theme of ‘garbage animals’, so to speak, to tie them together.

draft sketch 2_croppeddraft sketch 3_cropped

I’m interested in using the metaphor when creating my figures of substitution poster. I think this quote I found during my research really describes the unique position metaphors inhabit in advertising: “More interpretive effort is required in making sense of metaphors than of more literal signifiers, but this interpretive effort may be experienced as pleasurable. While metaphors may require an imaginative leap in their initial use… many metaphors become so habitually employed that they are no longer perceived as being metaphors at all.” (Chandler 2007, p 127).


Reference List:

3M (n.d.), ‘Lint Roller’ [image], 25 New Creative Advertisements, Pinterest, viewed 25th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/182255116146822557/

Chandler, D 2007, Semiotics: The Basics, Taylor and Francis, Florence

Mcdonalds (n.d.), ‘Macca’s’ [image], Maccas- It’s Australian for McDonalds, Pinterest, viewed 25th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/381961612126837314/

Ricola (n.d.), ‘She’s (cough) just a friend’ [image], Ricola: She’s (Cough) Just a Friend, Pinterest, viewed 25th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/287315651203037902/

Tabasco (n.d.), ‘Grenade’ [image], Tabasco Grenade, Pinterest, viewed 25th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/298082069066706934/

Tiket (n.d.), ‘Tiket.com’ [image], Tiket.com, Pinterest, viewed 25th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/372672937894859114/



Figures of Suppression

This week’s learning centred on figures of suspension. I’ve included a brief description of the five different categories of suspension below:

  1. Ellipsis: An element is continually missing and becomes obvious in its absence.
  2. Circumlocution: Part of object is left out but linked to another through similarity.
  3. Suspension: Part of the message is held back, not revealed immediately.
  4. Tautology: A word is repeated but used in a different sense, its second use attracts attention in its redundancy.
  5. Preterition: When an advertisement feigns a secret.


I’ve found an example demonstrating ellipsis below:

Charity Water Ad

In this example an element is continually left out in an obvious fashion. Here, as Durand states (Durand 1987) ‘…the reader must understand that something is missing… and then guess what is missing.’ In this case, even though the text reveals this missing element, the ad still acts as a riddle the viewer will take pleasure in solving (Hoeken, et. al 2009) by looking at the images first.

 Project 3 Progress:

At the moment I’ve been doing research into other advertisements looking at global warming. I’m also hoping to get started researching the issue in depth to determine which way I want to go when producing my posters.


Reference List

Charity Water (n.d.), ‘Water Changes Everything’ [image], Water Changes Everything, Pinterest, viewed 19th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/explore/charity-water/

Durand, J 1987, ‘Rhetorical Figures’, in J Umiker Seobeok (ed.), Marketing and Semiotics: New Directions in the Study of Signs for Sale, De Gruyeter, ePub, pp. 295-319.

Hoeken, H, Swanepoel, P, Saal, E, & Jansen, C 2009, ‘Using Message Form to Stimulate Conversations: The Case of Tropes’, Communication Theory (10503293), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 49-65.

Figures of Addition

This week we’ve been learning about figures of addition. This can be further categorised into five sub categories, and I’ve included a short definition of each of these below:

Repetition: Repeating the same word, sound or group of words (Dyer 2008, p 129), or visual elements.

Similarity: Similarity of form or content; their difference is used to compare like objects.

Accumulation: An image made of a build-up of different elements conveying “abundance and quantity or disorder and chaos” (Dyer 2008, p 133).

Opposition: An image with a common theme between otherwise contrasting elements, and is used to attract attention.

Double meaning, ambiguity and paradox: These “play on the opposition between appearance and reality” (Dyer 2008, p 133). In double meaning similarity conceals difference; conversely in paradox, difference “conceals a real identity or sameness” (Dyer 2008, p 133).

I’ve also been looking at project 3 this week, and have decided to go with the topic of anthropogenic global warming.

Head in Sand image

This image is an interesting take on global warming advertising, and uses the figures of addition, particularly repetition and accumulation, to create a very impactful image. Something like this could be an interesting way to approach project three for the poster using figures of addition.


Reference List:

Dyer, R 2008, Advertising as Communication, Taylor and Francis, Florence.

Rouse (n.d.), ‘The world on Climate Change’ [image], The One Picture That Perfectly Sums Up World Action on Climate Change, Pinterest, viewed 12th January 2015, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/502292164665784426/

Figures of Rhetoric

This week we have started learning about Durand’s Figures of Rhetoric, which can be categorised into four different groups:

  1. Figures of Addition
  2. Figures of Suppression
  3. Figures of Substitution
  4. Figures of Exchange

Valdman_My Masterpiece is Finished

In looking at this political cartoon, I’ve identified the forms of rhetoric which may have been used.

Figures of substitution is the main category which has been used in my opinion, predominantly substitution of similar elements, being a metaphor which allows one figure to stand in for another; in this case, it is the statue and the bulldozer standing in for Gillard’s Carbon Tax policy, and Abbott’s scrapping of it once he was elected. The black smoke coming out of the bulldozer could also represent Abbott’s reticence to acknowledge the impact of Global Warming. False homology is also used here, which uses puns as a play on words – the word ‘finished’ is given two meanings, being completed and destroyed. Figures of addition, particularly double meaning, could also be used here for the same reason.




Reference List:

Valdman n.d., ‘My Masterpiece is Finished’ [image], My Masterpiece is Finished, Pinterest, viewed 6th January 2016, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/12947917649349934/